Edited by Albert Breton, Giorgio Brosio, Silvana Dalmazzone and Giovanna Garrone
Chapter 16: Italy: Towards Responsibility-sharing in Environmental Protection
16. Italy: Towards responsibilitysharing in environmental protection Ivana Capozza* and Giovanna Garrone 1. INTRODUCTION In Italy, environmental concerns have prompted eﬀective actions only in relatively recent times, in spite of the high pressures determined by the country’s economic and social features, such as the high density of population, mostly concentrated in coastal areas and in the plains. Environmental governance is aﬀected by the overall government system. Italy is a regional (quasi-federal) state with a four-tier system of government: the country is divided into 20 Regions (to ﬁve of which the Constitution grants an increased autonomy),1 110 Provinces and, at the sub-provincial level, 8102 Municipalities and a number of several diﬀerent local authorities, such as Mountain Communities. It is undergoing a signiﬁcant, albeit slow and somewhat bumpy, evolution towards a proper federal set-up such that the current system is not easy to classify (Crosetti et al., 2002). The assignment of powers over the environment is evolving accordingly, with a general tendency towards an increasing role of local authorities at diﬀerent levels. However, the allocation of competences among levels of government is not always clear. This chapter reviews the current institutional setting for environmental governance in Italy, focusing on the ongoing decentralisation process and on the evolution of the policy instruments. Section 2 retraces the evolution in time of the institutional set-up leading to the current system of actors and assignments. This is described in section 3, which also deals with the role of the environmental...
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