Knowledge, Organizational Evolution, and Market Creation
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Knowledge, Organizational Evolution, and Market Creation

The Globalization of Indian Firms from Steel to Software

Gita Sud de Surie

Knowledge, Organizational Evolution, and Market Creation documents the emergence of the Indian multinational by looking at data from firms in the ‘old’ economy, such as those in manufacturing, steel-making, automotive components and heavy machinery and the ‘new economy’ such as software and biotechnology. The author provides insights on knowledge transfer, innovation and capability building processes through in-depth case studies in these industries and suggests that both entrepreneurship and distributed innovation are critical for the growth of firms globally.
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Appendix C: Evolution of biotechnology in India

Gita Sud de Surie


While the biotechnology industry in India is of relatively recent origin, it has its roots in government efforts to promote research in biotechnology beginning with the establishment of the Department of Biotechnology (under the Ministry of Science and Technology) in 1986 to coordinate talents, materials, resources, and budgetary provisions. Thus, biotechnology has historically been a government-sponsored effort with little private participation in investment although recent trends show that private sector participation is increasing (Ghose and Bisaria, 2000). India confronts problems raised by a fast-growing population, degradation of the environment, destruction of forest cover, inadequate health care and nutrition, and damage of agricultural land. Many of these problems can be addressed by the application of available knowledge in frontier technologies such as biotechnology. Thus, biotechnology is of great interest to developing countries like India because of the potential for stimulating agricultural productivity by increasing crop yields and reducing biotic and abiotic stresses. Similarly, application of biotechnology has the potential to change the production profile of the industrial sector. As the growth of knowledge-based sectors is dependent on strong institutional support for science and technology and R&D, the historical development of institutions pertaining to biotechnology is briefly outlined (Chaturvedi, 2002). EDUCATION AND TRAINING Before independence in 1947, scientists and academics were engaged in intellectual advancement primarily for self-satisfaction and were funded by the government with no industry involvement. While need-based research was not pursued, there were some eminent world-class thinkers in universities such as the scientist J.C....

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