Contentious Global Issues
Edited by H. S. Geyer
Chapter 6: Human Mobility in a Globalizing World: Urban Development Trends and Policy Implications
W.A.V. Clark Introduction The twenty-ﬁrst century will have to contend with two demographic issues – a growing older population and an increasingly mobile population. On the one hand there will be ageing populations in Europe, Japan and North America, and on the other, young mobile populations in and from China, India and Africa. The old notions that have been used to explain immigrant ﬂows – economic opportunities, structural imbalances and state economic and geopolitical policies, while still relevant, will need to be supplemented by paradigms that include a focus on refugees, amnesty and undocumented ﬂows. The immigrant ﬂows of the past three decades have already created large immigrant stocks in Europe and North America and with policies that privilege family migration it is likely that immigration ﬂows will increase simply as a function of existing immigrant population stocks. The ﬂows may also generate unemployment and unassimilated populations in the new host countries. It is almost certain that Europe and North America will be faced with dual populations (and their associated political outcomes) – an ageing native-born citizenry and youthful immigrants. These changes at the global level will be played out in community and neighbourhood changes. This chapter examines the nature, size and outcomes of international migration ﬂows and their implications for local community changes. It examines the way in which these ﬂows have changed over recent decades, connects these changes to globalization and examines how local labour markets are being transformed by these global ﬂows. I review the current thinking about reasons...
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