Contentious Global Issues
Edited by H. S. Geyer
Chapter 8: Social Exclusion and Urban Policy in European Cities: Combining ‘Northern’ and ‘Southern’ European Perspectives
F. Moulaert, E. Morlicchio and L. Cavola Introduction Over the last few decades, social exclusion analysis has gone through signiﬁcant methodological transformations. Originally centred on the observation and classiﬁcation of poverty and types of poor, and on the construction of appropriate indicators of poverty and deprivation (Townsend, 1993), the focus shifted from the late 1980s, towards the analysis of social exclusion as a multi-dimensional process, occurring at a variety of spatial scales (Moulaert, 1995; Paugam, 1996; Moulaert and Scott, 1997; Mingione, Kazepov and Zajczyk, 1997; Mingione and Oberti, 2003). Social exclusion First, the notion of social exclusion was introduced. On the basis of a well-organized literature review, Vranken (1997; 2001) identiﬁed three more or less complementary readings of ‘social exclusion’: [social exclusion may be seen] in terms of denial or non-realization of social rights. (Vranken (2001) citing Room, 1991, p. 5) [social exclusion] concerns the gap that exists between situations or groups in one or more areas of social life; this gap does not necessarily relate to poverty. (Vranken, 2001) [social exclusion] is a process, while poverty is one of its results. (Vranken, 2001) Much of the recent progress in social exclusion analysis has followed the lines of the third reading, that is, social exclusion as a process with a variety of dimensions and results (Paugam, 1996). This approach oﬀers a ﬁrm answer to the tendency to ‘segment’ or ‘atomize’ the analysis of the factors of poverty, as is done in some of the debates on...
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