Contentious Global Issues
- Elgar original reference
Edited by H. S. Geyer
Chapter 9: Crime and Urban Living: Conditions, Theory and Policy Options
H.S. Geyer and B.A. Portnov Introduction One of the contradictions of our urban society is that people have to live together to reap the beneﬁts of agglomeration, commonly measured by access to diverse employment, cultural and educational opportunities. However, living together in a society where the incomes and ethnic backgrounds of people diﬀer substantially, invariably causes tension and anxiety amongst inhabitants. As urban communities grow, positive externalities of urban agglomeration tend to increase, but, at the same time, negative externalities of urban living also intensify. Although crime and violence do not occur in the same degree throughout all cities and are not related directly to urban size, even in economically advanced societies, violence and crime have become endemic. Also, the origin and target areas diﬀer from case to case. While urban statistics of homicides, assault, rape and abuse in the developed world ﬂuctuate over time, some showing short-term downward, others upward trends, violent crime in urban areas seems to be a steadily growing phenomenon worldwide (O’Connor, 2006). Experience has shown that containing it is not easy. In fact, one of the biggest challenges of our time is not only ﬁnding ways of reducing crime and uncivil behaviour between inhabitants of cities but to contain and if possible reduce the forms of excessive violence that have become part of the urban scene today. Every day, the average First World citizen gets bombarded by news of death and destruction in their own cities: Nine out of ten of the...
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