Show Less

International Handbook of Urban Policy, Volume 2

Issues in the Developed World

Edited by H. S. Geyer

This Handbook brings together a range of viewpoints on a number of the burning issues affecting urban sustainability in North America and Europe at the beginning of the 21st century. H.S. Geyer and his contributors cover a wide spectrum of the urban policy issues that determine the growth and development progress as well as the livability of cities in the Occident.
Buy Book in Print
Show Summary Details
You do not have access to this content

Chapter 2: Differential Urbanization Trends in Europe: The European Case

E. Heikkilä and H. Kaskinoro


E. Heikkilä and H. Kaskinoro Urban history of Europe One could claim that European urbanism started with the emergence of the Greek polis in the eighth century bc. The polis, the city and the surrounding countryside and smaller villages and hamlets were usually integrated into harmonious political entities. Between 800 and 146 bc the Greeks formed small, independent city-states composed of coastal cities and their adjoining farmlands. Its largest city, Athens, may have reached 100 000 in population, but most other cities rarely exceeded 40 000. The formation of the Roman Empire between 146 bc and ad 300 represented the largest political and economic integration of territory in the ancient world. As the centre of the country’s military and administrative organization, Rome grew to a remarkable size, surpassing 800 000 inhabitants and perhaps reaching a million by ad 2 (Kim, 2007, p. 4). The Roman Empire collapsed in the seventh century in the face of Islamic expansion, competition and invasions from the East. Because large-volume, long-distance trade was difficult, towns become isolated and inward-looking, urban life in Western Europe declined to its nadir by the end of the ninth century (Urban Origins and Preindustrial Cities, 2006). After that, urban patterns became established. Most of the settlements that exist today were already established by ad 1350. The basic dimensions of the European urban system, including its urban–rural structural relations are of medieval origin (Bengs and Schmidt-Thomé, 2003, p. 19). The largest cities of Southern Europe were founded around 1350 and...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information

or login to access all content.