The Dynamics between Entrepreneurship, Environment and Education
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The Dynamics between Entrepreneurship, Environment and Education

Edited by Alain Fayolle and Paula Kyrö

This book introduces the expanding European dialogue between entrepreneurship, environment and education. It considers the shape, dimensions and horizon of this multidisciplinary landscape in entrepreneurship research. The striking differences and contradictions in entrepreneurial activities, readiness and innovativeness within European countries and the proactive attitude and activities of European competitors impose a demand for a better understanding of the complex dynamics.
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Chapter 6: University Entrepreneurship and Government Support Schemes

Einar Rasmussen, Odd Jarl Borch and Roger Sørheim


Einar Rasmussen, Odd Jarl Borch and Roger Sørheim INTRODUCTION The formation of spin-off companies from research organizations is seen as one of the most effective ways of commercializing new knowledge and technology (Bray and Lee, 2000; Brett et al., 1991; Davenport et al., 2002; Rogers et al., 2001). It is found that university spin-offs often commercialize early-stage inventions where existing companies fail to commercialize or show no interest in the technology (Matkin, 1990; Thursby et al., 2001). Furthermore, several studies indicate that the formation of spin-off companies is a more successful route to commercialization of university inventions than licensing (Bray and Lee, 2000; Gregory and Sheahen, 1991; Rogers et al., 2001). Thus, the university spin-off firm may be seen as a distinct channel for technology transfer for some types of inventions. National and regional authorities see a potential for economic growth and increased employment resulting from the resources that are invested in the universities (OECD, 2000), and universities are seen as engines of regional economic growth (Candell and Jaffe, 1999). In the US, the number of university patents, licenses, and equity ownerships has grown dramatically in the last 20 years, partly following the implementation of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980 (Mowery et al., 2001). The great success in the US in bringing new research findings to the marketplace has inspired countries to undertake reforms aiming to increase the extent of commercialization of research, by changes both in the academic system and in the instruments for research...

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