The Dynamics between Entrepreneurship, Environment and Education
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The Dynamics between Entrepreneurship, Environment and Education

Edited by Alain Fayolle and Paula Kyrö

This book introduces the expanding European dialogue between entrepreneurship, environment and education. It considers the shape, dimensions and horizon of this multidisciplinary landscape in entrepreneurship research. The striking differences and contradictions in entrepreneurial activities, readiness and innovativeness within European countries and the proactive attitude and activities of European competitors impose a demand for a better understanding of the complex dynamics.
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Chapter 12: The Impact of Global Value Chains on Andalusian Tourism SMEs

Pilar Tejada and Francisco Linan


Pilar Tejada and Francisco Liñán INTRODUCTION The present process of globalization stresses the need to continuously seek international competitiveness. Thus, firm strategies have been rapidly evolving over the last few years. Technological advances have exerted a critical influence on this process, modifying the traditional consideration of competitive advantage (López Domínguez, 2005). This has led to global strategic designs, as is reflected in the configuration of global tourism value chains (GTVCs). Within the tourism sector, the following elements imply an increasingly competitive environment: globalization of tourism markets, greater consumer sovereignty, changing firm strategies, introduction of new technologies in the tourism industry, and the transformation of marketing channels (Go and Pine, 1995). Tourism firms are forced to restructure thoroughly to adapt to this new environment. Main strategies in this sense are firm mergers, introduction of new agents in the market, new management models, and internationalization (Ioannides and Debbage, 1997; Bywater, 1998). These changes are forcing all tourism actors to adapt to the globalization process. Whether small firms and entrepreneurs in this sector win or lose from this process depends on their integration into the global tourism value chain (GTVC). Local suppliers in tourism destinations such as Andalusia need to recognize the relevance of this transformation and actively join GTVCs. Therefore, our first main objective in this chapter will be to understand the configuration of the global value chain in the tourism sector. The relationships established among the different participating agents will be studied. As...

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