Robert Siekmann and Janwillem Soek 1. INTRODUCTION In 2004 André-Noël Chaker published a study on ‘Good governance in Sport – A European survey’ which was commissioned by the Council of Europe.1 The Council of Europe was the ﬁrst international organisation established in Europe after the Second World War. With 46 Member States, the Council of Europe currently represents the image of a ‘wider Europe’. Its main objective is to strengthen democracy, human rights and the rule of law. The Council of Europe was the ﬁrst international intergovernmental organisation to take initiatives, to establish legal instruments and to offer an institutional framework for the development of sport at European level.2 The study covers the sport-related legislation and governance regulations of 20 European countries. The aim of this study was to measure and assess sport governance in each of the participating countries. For the purposes of the study the term ‘sport governance’ had been given a speciﬁc meaning. Sport governance is the creation of effective networks of sport-related state agencies, sport’s non-governmental organisations and processes that operate jointly and independently under speciﬁc legislation, policies and private regulations to promote ethical, democratic, efﬁcient and accountable sports activities. The legislative framework of the countries under review was analysed according to whether they have references to sport in their constitutions and whether they have a speciﬁc law on sport at national level. There are two distinctive approaches to sports legislation in Europe. Countries have adopted an ‘interventionist’ or a ‘non-interventionist’...
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