Intergenerational Solidarity in European Welfare States
Edited by Chiara Saraceno
Chapter 12: Patterns of Intergenerational Transfers Among Immigrants in France: A Comparative Perspective
1 Claudine Attias-Donfut and François-Charles Wolﬀ INTRODUCTION The recent transformations in international migration are of primary concern in Europe. In the 1990s, ‘the old continent’ became the main destination for migration after the United States, owing to the convergence of several trends (Fargues 2003). Political and economic changes in European Union member states, spurred by European integration, have been especially dramatic in Southern countries (Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy), turning them from suppliers of migrants into countries of immigration. The acceleration of globalisation and the worldwide diﬀusion of new information and communication technologies are increasing and facilitate transnational networks and international mobility. Population ageing, which is more advanced in Europe than in the rest of the world except Japan, is encouraging immigration to Europe, despite restrictive immigration policies. The past decade has seen a sharp increase in the volume of migration to Europe, which has reached its highest level since the Second World War. With the circulation of human beings, there is an increasing circulation of capital. Remittances nowadays represent a considerable amount of money. According to the International Fund for Agriculture Development, about 150 million migrant workers across the world sent remittances of approximately 300 billion US dollars in 2006. This amount is far higher than the aid given by rich countries to developing countries, which was for the same period equal to 104 billion US dollars. The economic stakes involved in these international ﬂows are huge, both at the macro and micro level of the functioning...
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