Achieving Kyosei in East Asia
Edited by Yoichiro Murakami and Thomas J. Schoenbaum
Chapter 1: The Birth of Arts: An Example of Functional Tolerance in Society
Yoichiro Murakami 1. INTRODUCTION I have attempted to show that in order to build a grand theory of peace, security and kyosei (or conviviality), which is the main title of the ongoing International Christian University academic project,1 one of the key concepts is functional tolerance.2 This concept can be applied to both individuals and society. The aim of this chapter is to present a case study demonstrating how societal tolerance works toward the security of society, particularly in our time. 2. SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS It is understood that modern science started in 17th century Europe. Historians of science such as Alexandre Koyre and Herbert Butterﬁeld proposed the idea of a Scientiﬁc Revolution, which was supposed to have begun in the middle of the 16th century and more or less ended by the end of the 17th century. During this period, classical Aristotelian, Ptolemaic, Galenic and Islamic theories on nature were replaced by the Copernican heliocentric model, Harvey’s blood circulation theory, Keplerian planetary studies, Galilean kinematic theory and Newtonian mechanics.3 As these latter theories are basically accepted in our modern sciences, this takingover shift has been called the Scientiﬁc Revolution, and it triggered the birth of modern science. Most of the members of the scientiﬁc community of the history of science are now in accord with this interpretation of history. As a historian of science, I am not in accord with this interpretation.4 It seems to be too simplistic in identifying what Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and...
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