Peace Movements and Pacifism after September 11
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Peace Movements and Pacifism after September 11

Edited by Shin Chiba and Thomas J. Schoenbaum

Noted international scholars from a range of disciplines present in this book Japanese and East Asian perspectives on the changed prospects for international peace post September 11. Because East Asia has not been preoccupied with the ongoing conflicts in the Middle East, the authors’ views serve as a balance to the war on terror declared in the United States.
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Chapter 9: Upon What Principles Should Foreign Policy Be Based in the 21st Century?

Thomas J. Schoenbaum


Thomas J. Schoenbaum I INTRODUCTION As the first decade of the 21st century draws to a close, international political relations are dominated by the foreign offices of some 192 states of varying sizes and influence. The population of these countries now exceeds 6.5 billion, by far the greatest number of human beings that has ever lived at the same time. The world is a messy and dangerous place: 42 so-called international ‘conflicts’ exist around the globe.1 A ‘conflict’ can be defined as an international disagreement that is serious enough to create war or a threat of war. Eight of these conflicts are termed ‘major wars’ by the United Nations, which defines ‘major war’ as a war that kills at least 1000 people per year.2 As bad as this is, the world has seen much worse. The 20th century was the bloodiest in human history by far. Two World Wars alone killed some 70 to 80 million people, and from 1946 to 1989 the world was involved in a Cold War between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and the communist ideology it promoted around the world. Although direct war was avoided between the United States and the Soviets, numerous bloody proxy wars and insurgencies were fomented in many countries, resulting in the deaths of millions and widespread destruction. With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989–90, the world seemed to...

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