Issues, Models and Cases
Edited by Carmelo Mazza, Paolo Quattrone and Angelo Riccaboni
Chapter 6: New Modes of Governance: The Re-Regulation of European Higher Education and Research
Tina Hedmo and Linda Wedlin INTRODUCTION European higher education and research is currently in focus for much debate. At the European level, both national and supranational eﬀorts are under way to set up new policies and priorities for constructing an attractive and competitive European knowledge society in which both higher education and research are believed to take prime positions. One political initiative is the Bologna process, paving the way for the organizing of comparable structures across national borders in European higher education. Another initiative is the political eﬀort to strengthen European research by increasing public spending on, and setting up a new funding mechanism for, European basic research. From these and other current developments in Europe we thus note an increasing political interest for coordinating and controlling the production and organization of knowledge at the European level. At the same time, however, national political reforms during the last two decades have reduced the coercive impact of governments in higher education, with the eﬀect of an increased autonomy left to the universities (Enders, 2004; Kogan and Hanney, 2000). The weakened political inﬂuence at the national level is also evinced by the reduction of state funding to research in several European countries, and the subsequent increasing importance of external ﬁnancing for universities. As an outcome, we now experience a mixed form of funding, where students together with private, commercial, international and global actors are important ﬁnanciers, replacing the principal role of state actors. Following the decreased role of...
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