Entrepreneurship in Emerging Regions Around the World
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Entrepreneurship in Emerging Regions Around the World

Theory, Evidence and Implications

Edited by Phillip H. Phan, Sankaran Venkataraman and S. Ramakrishna Velamuri

The contributors to this book look at the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in emerging regions in India, China, Ireland, Eastern Europe, North and South America, and North and South-East Asia. The organization is designed to take the reader from a general framework for understanding the relationship between economic development and entrepreneurship to more specific examples of how entrepreneurs and their firms respond to the opportunity and threats that are dynamically evolving in such places. The book represents the first serious attempt to suggest new theoretical frameworks for understanding the emergence of entrepreneurship in regions that do not have all of the classical prerequisites (such as financial and human capital, favorable geography, institutional infrastructures, and so on) predicted in extant development models.
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Chapter 2: The Entrepreneurial Drivers of Regional Economic Transformation in Brazil

José Cezar Castanhar, João Ferreira Dias and José Paulo Esperança


José Cezar Castanhar, João Ferreira Dias and José Paulo Esperança INTRODUCTION The study of entrepreneurship has usually been carried out in a somehow paradoxical approach by two different streams of literature: the economics literature and the management literature. The economics literature has been emphasizing the contribution of entrepreneurship for economic development through quantitative, econometric studies in which the entrepreneur is an aggregate variable. In this type of study entrepreneurship is measured by a proxy variable, usually the creation of new firms, and the aim is to evaluate the impact of different firm creation rates on some measures of economic development, usually job creation. Also a regular feature in this type of study is the use of some regional space unit (different countries or different regions within a country) as the level of analysis. In a different path the studies in management literature emphasize the individual entrepreneur, and/or the firms created by entrepreneurs. In this type of study the aim is usually to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurs’ attributes, firm’s characteristics and strategies as well as environmental conditions on the firms’ performance. The economic impact of the entrepreneur at local or regional level is taken for granted. These two different approaches for studying the entrepreneurship phenomenon can be seen to contain a curious paradox: on the one hand, the economics literature is more concerned in studying the aggregate effects of entrepreneurship, disregarding the dynamics of the entrepreneurial process itself; on the other...

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