Entrepreneurship in Emerging Regions Around the World
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Entrepreneurship in Emerging Regions Around the World

Theory, Evidence and Implications

Edited by Phillip H. Phan, Sankaran Venkataraman and S. Ramakrishna Velamuri

The contributors to this book look at the phenomenon of entrepreneurship in emerging regions in India, China, Ireland, Eastern Europe, North and South America, and North and South-East Asia. The organization is designed to take the reader from a general framework for understanding the relationship between economic development and entrepreneurship to more specific examples of how entrepreneurs and their firms respond to the opportunity and threats that are dynamically evolving in such places. The book represents the first serious attempt to suggest new theoretical frameworks for understanding the emergence of entrepreneurship in regions that do not have all of the classical prerequisites (such as financial and human capital, favorable geography, institutional infrastructures, and so on) predicted in extant development models.
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Phillip H. Phan, Sankaran Venkataraman and S. Ramakrishna Velamuri


Phillip H. Phan, Sankaran Venkataraman and S. Ramakrishna Velamuri The findings of the research chapters contained in this volume raise a number of issues that merit further research. First, studies of entrepreneurial regions all over the world – Silicon Valley and Route 128 in the USA, Baden-Württemberg in Germany, Scotland, Ireland, Bangalore in India, Shanghai in China, Singapore, among many others – have underscored the critical role of governments at different levels in the emergence of these regions. Such studies, using an evolutionary approach, have shown that the magnitude of governmental influence, which is significant in the early stages of development, seems to decline in later stages relative to other tangible and intangible factors (see Venkataraman, 2004). The explanations for this vary from the traditional ‘factor substitution’, wherein government ‘kick starts’ the development of a sector, which then becomes attractive for private capital to accumulate, to the post-modern ‘institutionalization’, in which the development of such institutions as intellectual property regimes engender capital accumulation. The research in this volume broadly support this approach, with the exceptions of (1) Arıkan’s study (Chapter 3) on the rise and decline of the media industry in Silicon Alley (New York tri-state area) during the 1990s, largely as a result of the pioneering actions of a number of private individuals and organizations, and (2) the Castanhar et al. study (Chapter 2) on the development of a furniture cluster in a remote area of Brazil, largely as a result of the efforts of...

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