Gender and Entrepreneurship
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Gender and Entrepreneurship

A Multilevel Theory and Analysis

Amanda Brickman Elam

This book examines three distinct contributions to the study of entrepreneurship. Firstly, it contributes to both sociological and institutional theories of entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur. Secondly, it presents a cross-national comparative framework for the multilevel analysis of entrepreneurship. Finally, this book produces a key multilevel finding with regard to the importance of national gender beliefs for the likelihood of business creation among both men and women.
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Chapter 4: Some Cross-National Findings

Amanda Brickman Elam


___________________________________________________ In the previous chapter, I developed a series of hypotheses concerning patterns of business start-up across gender and countries. In this chapter I present the findings from a multilevel empirical test of my practice theory view of gender and entrepreneurship. The findings are based on an analyses of data from four sources: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2000 and 2001 databases, the World Bank, the United Nations Human Development Indicators and the International Social Survey program (ISSP). The conclusions presented were based on two sets of analyses. First, the results of a 2-level random coefficient model offer evidence concerning the relative impacts of individual- and country-level correlates of nascent entrepreneurship, as well as gender interactions at the individual level and cross-level interactions between national characteristics and gender and perceptions. Second, the regression results are supported further by the analyses of Empirical Bayes postestimation probabilities. I conclude the chapter with a discussion of the findings. MULTILEVEL REGRESSION RESULTS The regression results presented in this section consist of a series of six 2level random coefficient models of various sets of factors regressed on nascent entrepreneurship (see Table 4.1). For the sake of clarity, I present the models in sections one at a time with as much explanation as possible as to the meanings and possible interpretations of the statistical terms and calculations. I also discuss the test statistics at the end of this first section. Each model in the series is designed to answer a particular part of a guiding research question:...

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