Gender and Entrepreneurship
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Gender and Entrepreneurship

A Multilevel Theory and Analysis

Amanda Brickman Elam

This book examines three distinct contributions to the study of entrepreneurship. Firstly, it contributes to both sociological and institutional theories of entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur. Secondly, it presents a cross-national comparative framework for the multilevel analysis of entrepreneurship. Finally, this book produces a key multilevel finding with regard to the importance of national gender beliefs for the likelihood of business creation among both men and women.
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Chapter 5: Conclusion and Implications

Amanda Brickman Elam


___________________________________________________ Despite the early stage of research on cross-national patterns of entrepreneurship, recent efforts have identified a pattern of difference between countries that tends to hold rank order over time and over short-term economic fluctuations (Acs, et al. 2005). The consistency of these comparative rates over time suggests that cultural factors may play an important role in determining national rates of entrepreneurship (Schramm, et al. 2005). Patterns of gender difference in rates of entrepreneurship across countries also follow this pattern of consistency over time (Arenius and Minniti 2005, Minniti, et al. 2005), again suggesting that culture plays an important role. Few studies exist, however, concerning the gendered patterns of entrepreneurship across countries or the importance that culture plays in shaping entrepreneurial practices. As a consequence, understandings about both cross-national patterns of entrepreneurship and gendered patterns of entrepreneurship across countries are currently limited. The aim of this thesis was to address directly the question of which factors best explain gender variation in entrepreneurship rates across countries. Entrepreneurship is defined in this study as the practice of business creation, or start-up. I developed multilevel theoretical model of the factors at both individual- and country-levels of analysis that influence the decision to start a business for men and women in different cultural contexts. The focus of the analysis was to test hypotheses about the ways in which culture combines with factors at both levels of analysis to create gendered patterns of business start-up. In the following sections, I summarize the key points of argument...

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