Cases and Policies
Edited by Charlie Karlsson
Chapter 8: Knowledge Clusters and University–Industry Cooperation
Jérôme Doutriaux Universities and other higher education institutions have long been considered a key element of knowledge clusters as a source of qualiﬁed manpower and of technology. As shown in this chapter, even if they are not always necessary for cluster emergence, they are needed for growth and sustainability. Except for world-class universities, most U–I linkages take place at the local or regional level, university research spillovers vary from sector to sector and are most eﬃcient in large clusters already active in research and with a culture and mechanisms supportive of networking. 1 Introduction Research on knowledge-based job creation and economic growth has shown that a country’s capacity for innovation and technology commercialization is related to its technological sophistication, to the human and ﬁnancial resources devoted to science and technology, and to its public policies and programmes in support of research and its commercialization. It has also shown that innovation and technology commercialization take place primarily in regional clusters of interacting institutions and ﬁrms in a common ﬁeld (Porter and Stem, 2001, p. 29). Key among those institutions are universities which, as repositories and producers of knowledge and as teaching organizations, provide ‘a bridge between technology and companies’ (ibid., p. 30). Universities and other institutions of higher education are an important part of National Systems of Innovation, as developers of knowledge, and as sources of ‘tertiarylevel graduates’ 1 and of qualiﬁed manpower in science and technology. In 2003, they accounted, on the average, for...
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