Entrepreneurship, Sustainable Growth and Performance Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research
Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research
Edited by Hans Landström, Hans Crijns, Eddy Laveren and David Smallbone
Chapter 12: Emergency Entrepreneurship: Creative Organizing in the Eye of the Storm
12. Emergency entrepreneurship: creative organizing in the eye of the storm Bengt Johannisson and Lena Olaison INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship is an elusive phenomenon that does not just appear as new business venturing in the market. Within the public sector there is a call for more entrepreneurial bureaucrats (du Gay, 2001) and entrepreneurship is entering the business schools as well as the educational system at large from the university to the compulsory school (Hjorth and Johannisson, 2007) with the political ambition to make all of Europe more entrepreneurial (Lambrecht and Pirnay, 2005). Accordingly, studies on diﬀerent entrepreneurial endeavours tend to end up with preﬁxes, such as team entrepreneurship (Stewart, 1989), collective entrepreneurship (Johannisson, 2003), community entrepreneurship (Johannisson and Nilsson, l989; Johnstone and Lionais, 2004), social entrepreneurship (Steyaert and Hjorth, 2006) and public entrepreneurship (Hjorth and Bjerke, 2006). This suggests that it is not possible to conclusively generate models and/or conceptualize entrepreneurship once and for all. Nonetheless, two perspectives on entrepreneurship are frequently used in the literature, namely entrepreneurship as a special kind of management – from Mintzberg (1973) to Shane (2003), and entrepreneurship as forms of social creativity (Hjorth et al., 2003; Gartner et al., 2003). In this chapter entrepreneurship is approached as a societal phenomenon practising creative organizing.1 We especially associate entrepreneurship with imaginative ways of dealing with ruptures in the everyday life context. The ‘prosaic view’ of entrepreneurship as suggested by Steyaert (2004) is then interesting to relate to. With this brief review of optional images of entrepreneurship in...
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