Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research
Edited by Hans Landström, Hans Crijns, Eddy Laveren and David Smallbone
Chapter 15: Employment Growth of New Firms
So far there have been no studies tracing the relationship between dynamic capabilities and the growth of new ﬁrms.1 There have been several empirical studies that analyse the factors associated with employment growth in new ﬁrms. These studies are summarized in Table 15.1. This table does not give an exhaustive overview of all the factors that have been used in these studies, but all factors that have been examined in at least two studies are represented. An overview of the characteristics of the samples on which these studies are based is provided in the appendix. We have categorized the factors associated with growth in employee numbers in new ﬁrms into three sets. Personal level factors include human capital, social capital and ambitions of the entrepreneur; ﬁrm level factors include organizational capital and ﬁnancial capital; variables related to the business environment of the ﬁrm are industry or geographical location. Table 15.1 shows that the outcomes of these studies are very scattered: hardly any study takes a similar set of factors into account, and when the same factors are taken into account sometimes contrasting outcomes are presented. Consensus is to be found to the greatest extent regarding personal level factors. The human capital variables educational level, start-up experience, industry experience and technical experience have generally been found to have a positive relationship with growth.2 Being a female founder or belonging to an immigrant group has a negative association with ﬁrm growth. Social capital, especially in the form of starting a ﬁrm with...
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