Country Perspectives on Diversity and Equal Treatment
Edited by Alain Klarsfeld
Chapter 1: Managing Gender Diversity in Pakistan and Turkey: A Historical Review
Mustafa Özbilgin, Jawad Syed and Beliz Dereli Introduction Studies of gender in Muslim majority countries (MMCs) have traditionally focused on gender issues in the Middle East and the Arab world (e.g. Afkhami, 1995; Mernissi, 1987; Moghadam, 1997). This chapter is a departure from that tradition, and is focused on two non-Arab countries, Pakistan and Turkey. In this sense, the chapter accounts for the diversity of Islam and various gender norms and practices within MMCs. Previous research suggests that the compatibility of organizational values with the wider societal values is essential to the long-term success of organizations (Harzing and Sorge, 2003; Hofstede, 1984; Schuler and Rogovsky, 1998). The focus of this chapter is upon managing gender diversity in Pakistan and Turkey. While other dimensions of diversity (e.g. cultural diversity, disability) are important, most of the literature in the two countries focuses on gender. Other areas are less developed and theoretically silent. They deserve in-depth future attention in their own right. We, however, argue that gender can serve as a cross-cutting lens through which other dimensions can be included in the diversity debate, as the managerial tools for leveraging gender diversity are more developed than tools for other strands of difference. Indeed, gender diversity is not a settled and resolved issue. Therefore the chapter does not choose to ignore other strands but focuses on one in order to highlight the ongoing relevance of gender issues in the context of employment in both countries. Organizational–societal cultural congruence is not only important to...
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