Innovation and Learning in Asia and Africa
INTRODUCTION We start this concluding chapter by recalling our central proposition that the diverse set of polities that deﬁne learning and innovation in particular industries in individual countries follow imperfect and uneven paths of industrial and technological evolution. Variations in initial conditions and policy support have largely diﬀerentiated these countries. The systemic quad with its four pillars was used as a heuristic model to locate the drivers of learning, innovation and competitiveness. The model emphasized the need for the simultaneous evolution of the four pillars. The chapters assessed the information technology industry to capture the evolutionary elements of learning and innovation. The presence of these learning factors is indicative of the base conditions in building a dynamic system of innovation. However, in order to understand how the diﬀerent countries’ experiences help explain the importance of institutions and institutional change we reiterate once more the critical drivers that are important in driving learning, innovation and competitiveness. 9.2 EXPLAINING UNEVEN OUTCOMES While the systemic quad oﬀered a simple and concise way to approach development policy, we emphasize the fact that the policy instruments that are necessary to drive the four pillars are rooted in diﬀerent institutional regimes. In order to understand the process of uneven development shaping the sectoral innovation system within a given historical context but using the capability framework, we suggest a typology of sectoral systems that emerged out of the diﬀerent country case studies. While initial conditions and the accumulation of sectoral knowledge...
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