Edited by Heikki Ervasti, Torben Fridberg, Mikael Hjerm and Kristen Ringdal
Chapter 5: Who Should Decide? A Comparative Analysis of Multilevel Governance in Europe
Linda Berg and Mikael Hjerm INTRODUCTION The Nordic countries are all small countries that have a history of seeking national political solutions despite the fact that they rely on internationalization for survival in the economic market. In spite of this commonality and historical interdependence, the relationship between the Nordic countries and Europe has come to be signiﬁed by diﬀerence. Denmark has been a member of the EU for more than 30 years and Finland and Sweden joined in 1995, whereas Norway is still not a member. Moreover, Finland is the only country that has implemented the euro. The Nordic countries may have diﬀerent histories in relation to European integration but they have one thing in common; citizens of the Nordic countries have always embraced the idea of closing in on Europe as a means of enhancing economic performance while tending to refute the idea of deeper integration (Olesen 2000; Oscarsson and Holmberg 2004; Siune and Svensson 2002). People in the Nordic countries tend to be somewhat chauvinistic about their Nordic model as they ﬁnd it superior to other European political solutions. The struggle to keep the Nordic model intact in the face of growing external pressures at diﬀerent points in time has demanded diﬀerent responses to the push for European integration. The question is whether the variation in political responses to Europe has aﬀected the Nordic people’s views on European integration. During the last decades we have seen the formation of new or more...
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