Edited by Heikki Ervasti, Torben Fridberg, Mikael Hjerm and Kristen Ringdal
Appendix: data source and statistical methods Mikael Hjerm and Kristen Ringdal The data source for this book is the European Social Survey (ESS). A short description of the ESS is given below. All empirical chapters employ a comparative perspective. There are a number of pitfalls in comparative research in general, and in comparative survey analysis in particular, which are reviewed below. The empirical analyses are based on a range of statistical techniques. The most common ones are brieﬂy described here: factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, logistic regression analysis and multilevel analysis. THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL SURVEY The European Social Survey (ESS) is a comparative attitude and behavioural survey conducted in more than 30 European countries. It is a new, conceptually well-anchored and methodologically rigorous survey that aims to pioneer a standard of methodology for cross-national attitude surveys that only the best national studies usually aspire to. The ESS intends to measure changing social attitudes and values in Europe. The survey consists of two parts: one core module that contains approximately 200 items and two rotating modules that contain about 50 items each. ESS is the result of a scientiﬁc mustering of strength unparalleled in the history of survey research. The development of the core module started four years before ESS1. Experts from various ﬁelds contributed with background reports within their various areas of expertise. These reports were evaluated by experts and the central project coordinators and formed the basis for the development of the test survey that was undertaken...
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