International Handbook of Maritime Business
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International Handbook of Maritime Business

Edited by Kevin Cullinane

The International Handbook of Maritime Business is a timely, comprehensive and insightful overview of the key contemporary research issues in maritime business.
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Chapter 17: The Potential for the Use of Single- versus Dual-Purpose Officers in Firms: A Theoretical Analysis Based on Resource-based, Transaction Cost and Labour Market Economics

Ioannis Theotokas and Maria Anne Wagtmann


17 The potential for the use of single- versus dual-purpose officers in firms: a theoretical analysis based on resourcebased, transaction cost and labour market economics Ioannis Theotokas and Maria Anne Wagtmann 1 Introduction Following Shell’s experiments with general purpose ratings and officers, which commenced in the 1960s, France (World Maritime University, 2005; Fairplay, 2008) and the Netherlands (Walton, 1987) established national training programmes for dual-purpose officers, who after completion of their studies are capable of serving both on the ship’s bridge and in the engine room. Japan also experimented in the 1970s and 1980s with the education of general-purpose ship officers (ibid.). In the past decade, interest in the training of dual-purpose officers has resurged, with Denmark starting dual-purpose education in 1997, and Singapore also experimenting with this officer education option shortly after 2000 (Søfartsstyrelsen/Danish Maritime Authority, 2003). Moreover, there is also an instance of an individual shipping company supporting dual-purpose officer training; the Danish shipping giant, A.P. Møller-Mærsk, has supported the creation of a dual-purpose course of education at a private sector maritime university in India (Hansen, 2008). This chapter will focus on economic issues concerning the advantage of employing dual-purpose officers, given that national dual-purpose educational programmes exist. This will thus delimit us from discussing potential advantages and disadvantages of firm-specific educational investments in maritime schools or universities. In our treatment of economic issues, we shall focus on insights from the research-based view of the firm, labour economics, and transaction cost economics, and then make...

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