Edited by Ayala Malach-Pines and Mustafa F. Özbilgin
Chapter 8: Technopreneurship in India: Two Case Studies of Information Technology Entrepreneurs
Radha R. Sharma Introduction Entrepreneurship in India Derived from the word ‘entreprendre’, the term ‘entrepreneurship’ means ‘to undertake’. In the entrepreneurship literature it has several connotations – doing something creative for economic independence or personal satisfaction; utilizing an opportunity in innovative ways or mobilizing various resources for establishing or expanding an enterprise and creating jobs. Entrepreneurship in India has a long history. After Indian independence in 1947, the government assumed the role of entrepreneur and established many enterprises in heavy machine tools, petro-chemicals, oil exploration, shipbuilding and locomotives. It has been making sustained efforts with various policy initiatives and programs – introduction of the 1956 Industrial Policy Resolution of India; promotion of programs for creating opportunities for self-employment since 1973; entrepreneurship development programs (in all provinces); high credit to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); establishment of the Small Industry Development Organization (SIDO), the National Institute of Entrepreneurship Development (NIED), and the National Institute of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development (NIESBUD); the promotion of Trade Related Entrepreneurship Assistance and Development (TREAD) for women; and the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) – to name a few. Liberalization of the economy by the government in the 1990s has paved the way for widespread entrepreneurship in a number of fields such as information technology (IT), IT-enabled services, manufacturing, financial services, health, entertainment and infrastructure development. India has the advantage of having a burgeoning youth population in the working-age group and is also one of the emerging economies along with Brazil, Russia and China. 142 Technopreneurship...
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