Edited by Ayala Malach-Pines and Mustafa F. Özbilgin
Chapter 10: University Technology Transfer: Comparative Study of US, European and Australian Universities
* Tsvi Vinig and Paul van Rijsbergen Introduction In the last few decades, the economies of developed countries have become increasingly knowledge dependent (Brinkley and Lee, 2006). Knowledge has become an essential element of the production of products and services, and is nowadays the key engine of productivity and long-term economic growth (Agrawal, 2001; European Commission, 2007b; Ndonzuau et al., 2002). Therefore, economies in the Western world are becoming increasingly dependent on knowledge producers. A substantial amount of knowledge is produced at universities and research centers (Löfsten and Lindelöf, 2002). However, for economies to benefit from this knowledge, the results of research need to be transferred from the university to society. This specific form of knowledge valorization is known as university technology transfer. Universities are not equally successful in commercializing their knowledge. The rapid increase in university technology transfer has attracted attention in the academic literature (Rothaermel et al., 2007), since this trend has important managerial and policy implications. As a result, there have been several papers on university licensing, patenting and start-up formation (Carlsson and Fridh, 2002; Jensen and Thursby, 2002; Di Gregorio and Shane, 2003; Baldini, 2006; Anderson et al., 2007; Thursby and Thursby, 2007). This emerging literature is interdisciplinary, with contributions from scholars in many disciplines, such as economics, sociology, political science, public administration, engineering, and in several fields within management, such as strategy, entrepreneurship, human resource management, and technology and innovation management. There is also some international evidence for this phenomenon. Due to the complexity...
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