Edited by Michael A. Crew, Paul R. Kleindofer and James I. Campbell Jr
Chapter 12: National Postal Policies in Europe on the Eve of the Third Directive
James I. Campbell Jr.,† Alex Kalevi Dieke‡ and Antonia Niederprüm‡ 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter oﬀers a snapshot of the national postal laws of Europe as they stood in mid2006. By this time all of the then 25 member states of the European Union (EU) – even the 10 countries from eastern and southern Europe who joined in early 2004 – had had a minimum of several years to implement the Postal Directive of 1997 as amended in 2002.1 In 2006, the ﬁrst draft of a third directive on postal services was still over the horizon.2 A look back at the state of play in mid-2006 oﬀers both an opportunity to evaluate how earlier reforms turned out in fact and a glimpse into what may be expected in the wake of the recent amendment to the Postal Directive to accomplish ‘full market opening’.3 In the EU, a ‘directive’ is a framework law adopted at EU level institutions. To give eﬀect to a directive, member states must adopt national laws that implement the directive. National laws may implement a directive in diﬀerent ways and in some cases may fail to implement a directive fully. A directive, therefore, leaves room for substantial variation in national postal policies. A survey of postal practices among member states of the EU, prepared for the European Commission by the authors, revealed a persistent diversity of national postal traditions within the framework of reforming and harmonizing demands set down in the Postal Directive. Of course,...
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