Forests in the Fight Against Global Warming
- Advances in Ecological Economics series
Chapter 7: Forestry in the Climate Change Policies of Selected Developed Countries
7. Forestry in the climate change policies of selected developed countries This chapter reviews the national policies that have been adopted by developed countries for the mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the role of forestry within those policies. Climate change policy is dynamic, and discussions are well underway on the international framework that will replace the Kyoto Protocol, post-2012. While land-use change and forestry (LUCF) are mechanisms for flexibility that are likely to be built into a new protocol, their effectiveness is also dependent on the policies adopted by those countries agreeing to GHG emission cuts. Cap and trade schemes, rather than tax policies, have emerged as the preferred vehicle for curbing emissions in the US, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The restriction on allowances to emit GHGs under cap and trade schemes puts a price on the allowances.22 The deeper the cuts required by the caps, the higher the prices of allowances and the greater the demand for offsets from forestry projects that sequester carbon. Very few countries have announced medium-term targets for emissions or detailed schemes for achieving them. This chapter examines climate change policies in selected developed countries and regions where caps on emissions have been adopted or policies are at a sufficient stage of development to enable the potential role of forestry to be reviewed; these are the Kyoto Protocol’s Annex I countries, the US, Australia, New Zealand and the EU. The chapter then examines policies that are in place that cover the execution of...
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