From Social Institution to Knowledge Business
Edited by Maureen McKelvey and Magnus Holmén
Chapter 2: Exploring University Alliances and Comparable Academic Cooperation Structures
2. Exploring university alliances and comparable academic cooperation structures Enrico Deiaco, Ana M. Gren and Göran Melin 1. INTRODUCTION Institutions of higher education have historically been characterized by a trend towards expansion (Trow, 2005). Although new sources of research funding are constantly appearing, there are also more players who want a share of available funds, thus creating a competitive environment for the available resources. This is an international phenomenon that is particularly evident in some national academic systems where universities lack their own sources of capital and ﬁxed assets, and where alternative sources of funding besides the state budget funds are limited (Neave et al., 2006). The forces behind this development are familiar within the academic sector in the United States, where the phenomenon has been studied by a number of researchers who conclude that it is evident that competition is on the increase – for students, for academic staﬀ members, as well as in terms of ﬁnancing resources (Trow, 1996; Clark, 1998; Florida, 2002). Moreover, this tendency is also on the increase within the international academic arena (Castells, 1996, 1997, 1998). In Europe, the Processes of Bologna and Lisbon combined with the creation of the European Research Council, and the European Technology Platforms can be considered as signs of the ongoing changes of the structure of the academic sector. The formation of these processes will most likely strengthen the incentives for collaboration and diﬀerentiation that exists today within the European Union. According to Harman and Meek (2002) and...
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