Learning to Compete in European Universities
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Learning to Compete in European Universities

From Social Institution to Knowledge Business

Edited by Maureen McKelvey and Magnus Holmén

This book addresses the critical issue of how and why European universities are changing and learning to compete. Anglo-Saxon universities particularly in the US, the UK and Australia have long been subject to, and responded to, market-based competition in higher education. The authors argue that Continental and Nordic universities and higher education institutes are now facing similar pressures that are leading to a structural transformation of the university sector.
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Chapter 8: Academic Patenting in Europe: Evidence on France, Italy and Sweden from the KEINS Database

Francesco Lissoni, Patrick Llerena, Maureen McKelvey and Bulat Sanditov


Francesco Lissoni, Patrick Llerena, Maureen McKelvey and Bulat Sanditov 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter reports key statistics from the KEINS database, which shed new light on the patenting activity of universities and their staff in France, Italy, and Sweden. Created by the authors, along with Ingrid Schild of Umeå University, the KEINS database allows the first cross-country comparison of university patenting patterns in Europe. The KEINS database covers inventions produced by academic scientists in active service around 2004–05 in the three countries considered, for which a patent application has been filed at EPO. In particular, it contains both the applications submitted by universities (university-owned patents) and the applications submitted by companies, individuals or governmental and non-profit organizations, as a result of various contractual arrangements between such organizations and the scientists, their universities, and other public or private sponsors (university-invented patents). For sake of clarity, we will speak of ‘university patenting’ when referring to universityowned patents, and to ‘academic patenting’ when referring to both university-owned and university-invented patents. We will always refer to patent applications (upon which almost all of our statistics are based) either in full or, for sake of brevity, simply as patents, and refer to ‘granted patents’ explicitly, when needed. The key intuition behind the KEINS data collection effort is that, due to institutional differences, academic patents in Europe are much less likely to be owned by universities than in the USA. These institutional differences concern both the autonomy of universities, the control they...

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