Dynamics of New Industrial Knowledge Flows
Edited by Philip Cooke, Carla De Laurentis, Stewart MacNeill and Chris Collinge
Chapter 9: Tourism Knowledge Dynamics
Henrik Halkier1 INTRODUCTION Several good reasons present themselves for taking a closer look at tourism knowledge dynamics. Firstly, in order to produce a rounded view of regional knowledge dynamics in Europe, the economic and political salience of tourism is obvious: this part of the service sector has traditionally involved large numbers of low-skill jobs, it has a significant presence in many peripheral areas, and it has been heralded as a potential driver of future economic growth in both peripheral and urban areas across Europe. Secondly, because of the inherently spatial and often international nature of tourism – normally defined in terms of staying some distance away from home – it would seem to present a promising area in which to study the relationship between ‘local versus non-local’ forms of knowledge because operating successfully in the market for tourism experiences will require an understanding of both the regions with potential customers – what are the prevailing notions of ideal ways of spending time away from home – and the regions which attempt to attract tourists in connection with leisure or business activities. Thirdly, while the existing academic literature on knowledge processes in tourism is fairly limited, it has suggested low levels of formalized research and development (R&D) within the sector and hence a dependence on knowledge imported via the application of new technologies and organizational forms developed elsewhere (Malerba, 2004; OrfilaSintes et al. 2005; OECD, 2006a; Weiermair, 2006), and a spatial pattern where tourism destinations, despite involving the co-location of large number of actors...
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