Handbook of Research on Innovation and Entrepreneurship
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Handbook of Research on Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Edited by David B. Audretsch, Oliver Falck, Stephan Heblich and Adam Lederer

Leading researchers use their outstanding expertise to investigate various aspects in the context of innovation and entrepreneurship such as growth, knowledge production and spillovers, technology transfer, the organization of the firm, industrial policy, financing, small firms and start-ups, and entrepreneurship education as well as the characteristics of the entrepreneur.
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Chapter 16: Knowledge Spillover Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth

David B. Audretsch and Max Keilbach


David B. Audretsch and Max Keilbach INTRODUCTION Where do new opportunities come from and what is the response of decision-makers when confronted by such new opportunities? The disparate approaches pursued to answer these questions distinguish the literature on entrepreneurship from that on firm innovation. The model of the knowledge production function of the firm has assumed the firm to be exogenous, while opportunities are endogenously created through purposeful investments in the creation of new knowledge, such as expenditures on R&D and augmentation of human capital. By contrast, in the entrepreneurship literature the opportunities are generally viewed as exogenous but the startup of the new firm is endogenous to characteristics specific to the individual. The focus of the entrepreneurship literature in general, and entrepreneurship theory in particular, has been on the cognitive process by which individuals recognize entrepreneurial opportunities and then decide to attempt to actualize them through the process of starting a new business or organization. This approach has typically taken the opportunities as given, and focused instead on differences across individual-specific characteristics, traits and conditions to explain variations in entrepreneurial behavior. The purpose of this chapter is to reconcile these two disparate literatures on entrepreneurship and firm strategy. We do this by considering entrepreneurship to be endogenous – not just to differences in individual characteristics, but rather to differences in the context in which a given individual, with an endowment of personal characteristics, propensities and capabilities, finds herself. We do not contest the validity of the pervasive entrepreneurship literature...

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