Global Pharmaceutical Policy
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Global Pharmaceutical Policy

Ensuring Medicines for Tomorrow’s World

Frederick M. Abbott and Graham Dukes

Pharmaceuticals play a central role in health care throughout the world. The pharmaceutical industry is beset with difficulties as increasing research and development expenditure yields fewer new treatments. Public and private budgets strain under the weight of high prices and limited access. The world’s poor see little effort to address diseases prevalent in less affluent societies, while the world’s wealthy are overusing prescription drugs, risking their health and wasting resources.
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Chapter 8: Specialized Policy Areas: Vaccines, Biologicals and Blood Products; Alternative and Traditional Medicines; Self-Medication; Counterfeit Medicines

Frederick M. Abbott and Graham Dukes

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8. Specialized policy areas: vaccines, biologicals and blood products; alternative and traditional medicines; self-medication; counterfeit medicines VACCINES, BIOLOGICALS AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Vaccines and certain ‘biologicals’ (for example, immune sera and toxoids as well as blood products) merit somewhat separate consideration from drugs. Although in many respects the situation with regard to overall public policy, responsibility for quality and liability for possible injury is the same, a number of differences can arise. Those differences can reflect particular social and religious concepts, but also the nature of these products and the circumstances that dictate their use. VACCINATION AND THE CONCEPT OF PREVENTATIVE TREATMENT Since Edward Jenner in England and John Redman Coxe in America pioneered vaccination against smallpox at the beginning of the nineteenth century,1 the prevention of major epidemic diseases in this way has come to comprise a major component of public health policy. From the outset, however, it was realized that the process of mass vaccination had to be managed with the greatest care, especially since it involved exposing healthy individuals to a degree of risk. It is striking that in this field considerations of efficacy, safety and quality came to play a major role in policy a century before they became established with regard to medicines in general. Issues of legislation, information and access, too, were decided early, since it was clear that if mass prevention was to be successful the law must impose duties, public support must be recruited and free access unhindered by financial barriers must...

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