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Chapter 13: What Entrepreneurial Competencies Should Be Emphasized in Entrepreneurship and Innovation Education at the Undergraduate Level?
13 What entrepreneurial competencies should be emphasized in entrepreneurship and innovation education at the undergraduate level? Edgar Izquierdo and Dirk Deschoolmeester Introduction Over the past decade, great attention has been paid to competency-based education (Stoof, 2005), and its relevance in entrepreneurship education and training at the university level as well as other training venues has become apparent (Bird, 2002). A basic premise of this movement is that an educational stance based on competency development can facilitate learning in a society characterized by complexity and rapid changes. Facilitation of learning may be possible because we can focus our efforts on the competency characteristic we want to influence in students. This implies that education based on competencies does not necessarily consider the content as the starting point for curriculum development, but the competencies that are relevant to be successful in a certain task or job. Competencies are seen as characteristics that a person brings to a job situation, which can result in effective and/or superior performance in such job (Boyatzis, 1982). These characteristics include: motives and traits, social role and self-concept, and knowledge and skills (Boyatzis, 1982; Spencer and Spencer, 1993). In the case of entrepreneurs, they do not have jobs in the traditional sense; however, they do have jobs or tasks as they pursue and run a new business (Bird, 2002). Therefore, from an educational perspective, the question that needs to be answered is: what are the entrepreneurial competencies that universities should address in entrepreneurship education at the undergraduate level? In...
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