Edited by Julio Faundez and Celine Tan
Chapter 15: Biotechnology and the International Regulation of Food and Fuel Security in Developing Countries
Mary E. Footer* 1. INTRODUCTION According to the United Nations, the world’s population is set to grow from the current 6.8 billion to surpass 9.1 billion in 2050, with subSaharan Africa and Asia accounting for a large proportion of the additional increase of 2.3 billion (UN, 2009c: vii, ix–x, 1). Already there is evidence that shows not only a rise in per capita food consumption but also changes in the geography of consumption. As household incomes around the world have risen, the current financial crisis notwithstanding, there has been a dietary shift in many developing countries away from vegetables and pulses to greater consumption of meat and dairy, with increased reliance on grain-fed livestock (Stamoulis et al., 2004: 155–8, 165). Additionally, some developing countries face high demand for biofuels1 from industrial countries where fossil fuels are being rapidly depleted. Increasingly, biofuels are being produced in developing countries like Brazil, China, India and Nigeria, with sugar cane and sweet sorghum as the basis for bioethanol.2 Meanwhile, Indonesia and Malaysia are turning acreage previously used for rubber production over to palm oil and * Professor of International Economic Law, School of Law, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. 1 ‘Biofuels’ means any solid, liquid or gaseous fuel produced from ‘biomass’ for use in transport. 2 ‘Bioethanol’ (or simply ethanol) is a gasoline-type fuel made by fermenting sugars found in sugar-rich plants, such as sugar cane, maize, beet, cassava, wheat, sorghum or starch, into alcohol. 331 M2397 - FAUNDEZ PRINT.indd 331 28/9/10 11:...
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