The Capitalization of Knowledge
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The Capitalization of Knowledge

A Triple Helix of University–Industry–Government

Edited by Riccardo Viale and Henry Etzkowitz

This ground-breaking new volume evaluates the capacity of the triple helix model to represent the recent evolution of local and national systems of innovation. It analyses both the success of the triple helix as a descriptive and empirical model within internationally competitive technology regions as well as its potential as a prescriptive hypothesis for regional or national systems that wish to expand their innovation processes and industrial development. In addition, it examines the legal, economic, administrative, political and cognitive dimensions employed to configure and study, in practical terms, the series of phenomena contained in the triple helix category.
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Chapter 2: ‘Only Connect’: Academic–Business Research Collaborations and the Formation of Ecologies of Innovation

Paul A. David and J. Stanley Metcalfe


Paul A. David and J. Stanley Metcalfe UNIVERSITY PATENTING FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER – MIRACULOUS OR MISTAKEN MOVEMENT? The international movement to emulate the US institutional reforms of the early 1980s that gave universities and publicly funded technology research organizations the right (rather than a privilege granted by a sponsoring agency) to own and derive income from the commercialization of IP (intellectual property) based on their researchers’ inventions has developed remarkable momentum since its inception at the end of the 1990s (see, e.g., the survey in Mowery and Sampat, 2005). The process of change and adaptation that was thereby set in motion among the EU member states has not yielded the dramatic effects on innovation and employment growth in Europe that had been promised by those who enthusiastically prescribed a dose of ‘the Bayh–Dole solution’ for the region’s sluggish economies. But such expectations were at best unrealistic, and in too many instances stemmed from contemporary European observers’ mistaken suppositions regarding the sources of the revival of productivity growth and the ‘information technology’ investment boom in the American economy during the late 1990s; and more widely shared misapprehensions regarding the fundamental factors that were responsible for the rising frequency with which patents applications filed at the USPTO during the 1980s and 1990s were citing scientific papers by academic authors.1 The movement to promote ‘technology transfers’ from universities to industry through the medium of patent licensing was fueled by a widespread supposition that European academic research was dangerously disconnected from the processes of...

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