The Capitalization of Knowledge
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The Capitalization of Knowledge

A Triple Helix of University–Industry–Government

Edited by Riccardo Viale and Henry Etzkowitz

This ground-breaking new volume evaluates the capacity of the triple helix model to represent the recent evolution of local and national systems of innovation. It analyses both the success of the triple helix as a descriptive and empirical model within internationally competitive technology regions as well as its potential as a prescriptive hypothesis for regional or national systems that wish to expand their innovation processes and industrial development. In addition, it examines the legal, economic, administrative, political and cognitive dimensions employed to configure and study, in practical terms, the series of phenomena contained in the triple helix category.
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Chapter 5: Global Bioregions: Knowledge Domains, Capabilities and Innovation System Networks

Philip Cooke


Philip Cooke INTRODUCTION This chapter explores a field, ‘globalization of bioregions’, that is of growing interest to social science and policy alike. A number of special journal issues have been published (Cooke, 2003, 2004; Lawton Smith and Bagchi-Sen, 2004), and others may be anticipated from different stables. Outside the spatial field but well informed by it, an earlier one was published in Small Business Economics (2001), subsequently enlarged into a book (Fuchs, 2003). Numerous other books are published in this increasingly dynamic field (Orsenigo, 1989; McKelvey, 1996; De la Mothe and Niosi, 2000; Carlsson, 2001). There has also been a surge in paper publication, too large to cover in this brief review, but that of Powell et al. (2002) is noteworthy in showing close spatial interactions among biotechnology SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and venture capitalists from non-spatially designed survey data. Most economists writing about the evolution of the biotechnology sector (many authors refuse to think of a technology as an ‘industry’) accept that it is a classic case of a sciencedriven sector, highly active in R&D expenditure, patenting of discoveries, with research increasingly dominated by public (mainly university) laboratories, but exploitation mainly dominated not by large but by small firms.1 This is so for the biggest part of biotechnology, accounting for about 70 per cent of sales, biopharmaceuticals, which is the subject of much of what follows. Biopharmaceuticals, as a large subsector of biotechnology, is fascinating. It belies the prediction that multinational corporations are bound to dominate all...

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