A Triple Helix of University–Industry–Government
Edited by Riccardo Viale and Henry Etzkowitz
Chapter 5: Global Bioregions: Knowledge Domains, Capabilities and Innovation System Networks
5. Global bioregions: knowledge domains, capabilities and innovation system networks Philip Cooke INTRODUCTION This chapter explores a field, ‘globalization of bioregions’, that is of growing interest to social science and policy alike. A number of special journal issues have been published (Cooke, 2003, 2004; Lawton Smith and Bagchi-Sen, 2004), and others may be anticipated from different stables. Outside the spatial field but well informed by it, an earlier one was published in Small Business Economics (2001), subsequently enlarged into a book (Fuchs, 2003). Numerous other books are published in this increasingly dynamic field (Orsenigo, 1989; McKelvey, 1996; De la Mothe and Niosi, 2000; Carlsson, 2001). There has also been a surge in paper publication, too large to cover in this brief review, but that of Powell et al. (2002) is noteworthy in showing close spatial interactions among biotechnology SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and venture capitalists from non-spatially designed survey data. Most economists writing about the evolution of the biotechnology sector (many authors refuse to think of a technology as an ‘industry’) accept that it is a classic case of a sciencedriven sector, highly active in R&D expenditure, patenting of discoveries, with research increasingly dominated by public (mainly university) laboratories, but exploitation mainly dominated not by large but by small firms.1 This is so for the biggest part of biotechnology, accounting for about 70 per cent of sales, biopharmaceuticals, which is the subject of much of what follows. Biopharmaceuticals, as a large subsector of biotechnology, is fascinating. It belies...
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