A Triple Helix of University–Industry–Government
Edited by Riccardo Viale and Henry Etzkowitz
Chapter 6: Proprietary versus Public Domain Licensing of Software and Research Products
6. Proprietary versus public domain licensing of software and research products Alfonso Gambardella and Bronwyn H. Hall INTRODUCTION 1. In the modern academic research setting, many disciplines produce software and databases as a by-product of their own activities, and also use the software and data generated by others. As Dalle (2003) and Maurer (2002) have documented, many of these research products are distributed and transferred to others using institutions that range from commercial exploitation to ‘free’ forms of open source. Many of the structures used in the latter case resemble the traditional ways in which the ‘Republic of Science’ has ensured that research spillovers are available at low cost to all. But in some cases, moves toward closing the source code and commercial development take place, often resulting either in the disappearance of open source versions or in ‘forking’, where an open source solution survives simultaneously with the provision of a closed commercial version of the same product. This has also created tensions between the reward systems of the ‘Republic of Science’ and the private sector, especially when the production of research software or the creation of scientific databases is carried out in academic and scientific research environments (see also Hall, 2004). As these inputs to scientific research have become more important and their value has grown, a number of questions and problems have arisen surrounding their provision. How do we ensure that incentives are in place to encourage their supply? How do market and non-market production of these knowledge...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.