Social Inclusion through Microenterprise Development
Edited by Bárbara Jayo Carboni, Maricruz Lacalle Calderón, Silvia Rico Garrido, Karl Dayson and Jill Kickul
Chapter 8: Status of Microlending in Germany: An Empirical Survey of Programmes in 2006
Jan Evers and Stefanie Lahn General national context for entrepreneurship Although GDP growth has been below the OECD average during recent years, the GDP per capita and the net real income per capita in Germany are still well above the OECD average.1 The public support structure for enterprise development in Germany is comparatively well developed. The physical infrastructure is among the best around the world.2 The level of entrepreneurial culture in Germany is low compared to the other countries in the study. In particular, the impact of risk avoidance behaviour on entrepreneurial activity is stronger than in other European countries.3 Administrative burdens for conducting business activity are traditionally high in Germany, although recent reform efforts have improved the situation.4 Income support programmes for self-employment out of (registered) unemployment are in place and have led to high numbers of start-ups out of unemployment in recent years. The access to external finance for start-ups in Germany has worsened rapidly during recent years. In particular, micro and small enterprises face greater difficulties compared to medium-sized enterprises.5 A national microfinance sector is not well developed yet. 1 Introduction Microfinancing is a success model of development cooperation. It refers to small financial transactions which are implemented very close to the clients, quickly and reliably through simplified procedures, and which support the clients in their economic independence.6 The social objective is increasingly being backed by a business model and developed financial methodologies. Following Asia, Central and South America, now Central and Eastern Europe has become a...
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