Towards the Third Generation University
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Towards the Third Generation University

Managing the University in Transition

J. G. Wissema

Universities are undergoing massive change, evolving from science-based, government-funded institutions into ‘international know-how hubs’ dubbed third generation universities, or 3GUs. J.G. Wissema explores this dramatic change, tracing the historic development of universities, and exploring the technology-based enterprises, technostarters and financiers for start-ups and young enterprises that are the main partners of these 3GUs. He goes on to illustrate that universities play a new role as incubators of new science or technology based commercial activities and take an active role in the exploitation of the knowledge they create. The book concludes with suggestions regarding the way in which changes in the university’s mission should be reflected in subsequent organisational changes.
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Chapter 4: Creation of Knowledge and Value in Industry

J. G. Wissema


4.1 EVOLUTION IN INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH: THE FIRST FOUR REGIMES Technology-based companies are engaged in research activities to make discoveries and subsequently develop them into inventions, and these inventions are then turned into innovations by bringing them to the market. This final stage has to create value for the company and recover the cost of the research and development (R&D) stages. This sequence of the stages from discovery via invention to innovation is intrinsic. Traditionally this sequence was also the basis for the way in which companies organised their product development and innovation effort. But over time this has changed and the sequential approach is no longer adequate and cost-effective. In response to an increasingly more challenging and complex business environment the organisation of research and innovation in industry evolved over time to an increasingly more complex and efficient system. Research developed from a relatively insular, technology-driven effort in laboratories to an open, collaborative, value-creation activity as a business in its own right. To appreciate the logic and necessity of this development, we will start by describing the five evolutionary regimes in industrial research and illustrate the transition to the final regime with a case study from industry.77 The First Regime: Trial and Error The first regime concerns the experimental, largely pre-scientific search for the creation of new products and production processes by the great nineteenth-century inventors such as James Watt, Thomas Edison, Daniel Bell and so many others. Although these inventors worked with the...

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