Towards Effective Place Brand Management
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Towards Effective Place Brand Management

Branding European Cities and Regions

Edited by Gregory Ashworth and Mihalis Kavaratzis

Many facets of place branding, such as identities, image, promotion or sense of place, have been around for a long time. However, the need to analyse their nature in the context of branding and to examine their relationships in detail has grown rapidly in the last decade or so, as places all over the world have put branding activities higher than ever in their agenda. This important new book examines and clarifies key aspects of the recently popularised concept of place branding, expounding many controversies, confusions and discords in the field.
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Chapter 4: Place Marketing, Local Identity and Branding Cultural Images in Southern Europe: Nea Ionia, Greece and Pafos, Cyprus

Alex Deffner and Theodore Metaxas


Alex Deffner and Theodore Metaxas INTRODUCTION: IDENTIFYING THE CITY/PLACE MARKETING PROCESS The role of city marketing has become increasingly important in Europe, mainly aiming at three general target markets: residents, tourists, and businesses/investors. Today it has become a necessity for a plurality of goals, uses and/or instruments, including global competition of cities, tourist attraction, urban management, city branding and urban governance. Since the 1990s many cities, especially in Europe, have used promotion policies to support their images and competitive position (Ashworth and Voogd, 1990a; Kearns and Philo, 1993; Kotler et al., 1993; 1999; Braun, 1994; Gold and Ward, 1994; Duffy, 1995; Ward, 1998; Avraham, 2000; 2004; Urban, 2002), a process that is especially noticeable in the contexts of globalisation (Short and Kim, 1999) and entrepreneurialism (Hall and Hubbard, 1998). It can be argued that there are three main ‘national’ schools of place marketing: a) the UK/US which is the most widely used (Morrison, 1989; 2001; Kearns and Philo, 1993; Kotler et al., 1993; 1999; Gold and Ward, 1994; Ward, 1998; Murray, 2001; Anholt, 2007); b) the German, which is mainly practice oriented (Konken, 2004; Zerres and Zerres, 2000); and c) the Dutch, which is the most theoretically enriched (Ashworth and Voogd, 1990a; 1994). In marketing terms the product (Goodwin, 1993), or ‘good’ (Metaxas, 2003), in place marketing is a place, often a tourist destination (Buhalis, 2000), tourism product (Meler and Ruzic, 1999; Morrison, 1989; 2001: 288), or destination product (Oppermann, 1996; Murphy et al., 2000). Ashworth and Voogd (1994) define...

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