Branding European Cities and Regions
Edited by Gregory Ashworth and Mihalis Kavaratzis
Chapter 4: Place Marketing, Local Identity and Branding Cultural Images in Southern Europe: Nea Ionia, Greece and Pafos, Cyprus
Alex Deffner and Theodore Metaxas INTRODUCTION: IDENTIFYING THE CITY/PLACE MARKETING PROCESS The role of city marketing has become increasingly important in Europe, mainly aiming at three general target markets: residents, tourists, and businesses/investors. Today it has become a necessity for a plurality of goals, uses and/or instruments, including global competition of cities, tourist attraction, urban management, city branding and urban governance. Since the 1990s many cities, especially in Europe, have used promotion policies to support their images and competitive position (Ashworth and Voogd, 1990a; Kearns and Philo, 1993; Kotler et al., 1993; 1999; Braun, 1994; Gold and Ward, 1994; Duffy, 1995; Ward, 1998; Avraham, 2000; 2004; Urban, 2002), a process that is especially noticeable in the contexts of globalisation (Short and Kim, 1999) and entrepreneurialism (Hall and Hubbard, 1998). It can be argued that there are three main ‘national’ schools of place marketing: a) the UK/US which is the most widely used (Morrison, 1989; 2001; Kearns and Philo, 1993; Kotler et al., 1993; 1999; Gold and Ward, 1994; Ward, 1998; Murray, 2001; Anholt, 2007); b) the German, which is mainly practice oriented (Konken, 2004; Zerres and Zerres, 2000); and c) the Dutch, which is the most theoretically enriched (Ashworth and Voogd, 1990a; 1994). In marketing terms the product (Goodwin, 1993), or ‘good’ (Metaxas, 2003), in place marketing is a place, often a tourist destination (Buhalis, 2000), tourism product (Meler and Ruzic, 1999; Morrison, 1989; 2001: 288), or destination product (Oppermann, 1996; Murphy et al., 2000). Ashworth and Voogd (1994) define...
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