INTRODUCTION Targeting has been deﬁned as ‘the process of identifying the intended beneﬁciaries of a program, and then ensuring that, as far as possible, the beneﬁts actually reach those people and not others’ (Sharp, 2001, p.1). This may sound straightforward enough, but in practice targeting is far from simple, and can be broken down into a series of at least seven discrete choices. First is deﬁning eligibility in theory – who is entitled to beneﬁt from this programme? (often this is vaguely deﬁned, for example ‘the poor’, or ‘vulnerable groups’, or ‘the disabled’). Second is operationalizing eligibility in practice – what criteria will be used to decide who is entitled? (agreeing on robust indicators of poverty, for instance, is a challenge in itself, while proxy indicators of need such as having a disability or being female are often inaccurate). Third is identifying and selecting beneﬁciaries – how will all the people in the programme area who meet the eligibility criteria be found? Fourth, registration procedures – how will beneﬁciaries be registered? (and, since many programmes are targeted on households rather than individuals, which person should be registered?). Fifth, veriﬁcation tests – how will it be conﬁrmed that the correct individuals are collecting beneﬁts? (this might require senior community members to be present, to verify the identity of claimants). Sixth, grievance procedures – will a mechanism be provided for people who feel unfairly excluded from the scheme to appeal for their inclusion? Finally, there are graduation...
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