Towards Integration or Fragmentation?
Edited by Henri Delanghe, Ugur Muldur and Luc Soete
Chapter 1: Post-war Research, Education and Innovation Policy-making in Europe
Peter Tindemans VECTORS OF CHANGE AND THE EMERGENCE OF A NEW EUROPE IN RESEARCH AND EDUCATION 1 It is rather daunting to try to cover 60 years of policy-making on research, education and innovation in Europe. It entered the period as a collection of states with neither clearly articulated policies for science and technology (S&T) nor integrating European mechanisms and now displays a full set of well-developed national policies next to a many-faceted Community Framework of the European Union and several intergovernmental cooperation schemes. Main trends will necessarily be covered; conceptual subtleties will therefore be glossed over. Yet one issue has to be dealt with: what policies are we actually dealing with? Names abound: research policy, policies for research and technological development, technology policy, science policy and, increasingly, innovation policy. As this chapter focuses on major changes in the funding for scientific research and technological development since World War II and the accompanying institutional changes, nationally and at a European level, no attempt is made to distinguish between research policy, technology policy or science policy. Differences would be of second-order importance. For example, statistically, expenditure on S&T is defined as broader than expenditure on research and development (R&D), one major difference being the inclusion of expenditure on science education. However, the remits of science policy and research policy in this respect can be considered to be essentially the same, as they do not follow this distinction: the scope of science policy hardly ever includes science education, though...
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