Towards Integration or Fragmentation?
Edited by Henri Delanghe, Ugur Muldur and Luc Soete
Chapter 5: Analysing Community Policies
Jim Dratwa This chapter takes stock of European Research Area (ERA) policy actions undertaken at Community level from 2000 to 2008. Although not exhaustive, it delivers a meaningful overview: it is not merely a listing of actions but endeavours to provide indications regarding the results and impacts achieved as well as the limitations or obstacles faced.1 This is done with regard to Community-level policies while bearing in mind that ERA is also, crucially, constituted through policies emanating from intergovernmental cooperation and the Member States themselves (in addition to the endeavours of other, regional, supranational, and nonstate actors). Indeed, besides referring the reader to the preceding chapters in Part 1, this Community stocktaking also covers the coordination of actions by Member States and mutual learning processes. Even though the Framework Programme (FP) is crucial for the realization of ERA, the scope of ERA goes beyond the FP and indeed beyond EU initiatives alone. Thus, actions that have to some extent be contributed to ERA can be identified in diverse quarters as shown below. A stocktaking exercise of this nature is a crucial yet thorny undertaking; difficulties abound. Many of the actions supporting the development of ERA are still ongoing or indeed in their early stages. Furthermore, many of the initiatives taken at EU or national level do not have as sole (or main) objective the furthering of ERA. Beyond this introduction, the chapter consists of four main sections. The first section offers a crisp systematic overview of the actions undertaken in...
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