A Research Companion to Water Transitions around the Globe
Edited by Dave Huitema and Sander Meijerink
Chapter 9: Transitions in Indonesian Water Policy: Policy Windows through Crisis, Response through Implementation
Anjali Bhat and Peter P. Mollinga 9.1 Introduction Indonesia’s water sector has been in a state of transition since the mid-1980s. This chapter examines actors and interests that have driven several recent transitions in order to consider the dynamics of these transitions and patterns that comprise seemingly chaotic change. Kingdon’s multiple streams framework, Litfin’s concept of knowledge brokers, and Grindle and Thomas’s notion of incremental implementation are incorporated in the analysis of three particular water policy transitions. As discussed in the theoretical introduction to this book (Meijerink and Huitema, Chapter 2 in this volume), Kingdon’s (1995) multiple streams framework seeks to understand structures and patterns evident in agenda-setting. He saw three process streams as instrumental to developing or framing policy windows. A problem stream involves problem identification and recognition, based upon indicators, focusing events or feedback. Systematically collected indicators can illustrate a problem’s presence, while focusing events can more broadly and immediately raise awareness of a problem. Feedback can ensure continued awareness of the problem among policy-makers. A policy stream comprises disparate policy communities that produce alternatives and proposals. Kingdon sees the policy stream as a ‘primeval soup’ in which policy alternatives are floated among and shortlisted by a community of specialists. The political stream takes into account shifts in public opinion, changes in political administration, and interest group activity to determine actor receptivity. Each of these streams is considered to flow independently, driven by differing forces. Policy entrepreneurs come in at critical junctures to impact upon agenda-setting and to...
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