A Research Companion to Water Transitions around the Globe
Edited by Dave Huitema and Sander Meijerink
Chapter 12: Past, Present and Future Landscapes of Water Policy in Tanzania
Jaqui Goldin and Deusdedit Kibassa 12.1 Introduction 12.1.1 Background Competition for water has become an increasingly important issue in Tanzania, where the demand for water for irrigation, livestock and industry has doubled in the last ten years due to rapid population growth. The concerns that have emerged around water date back to pre-colonial times, although tensions between demand and supply are starker in the current water landscape. As Mutayoba (2002) cautioned, demand exceeding water availability was leading to local, national and even international conflict. In the past, increases on water demand and ongoing disputes and confusion around issues of water encouraged the promotion of ideals of cooperation that would pre-empt potential conflict over water. At the time of writing this chapter water stress in Tanzania is acute because rapid population growth and increased economic activity exert pressure on the scarce water resources. Recurring drought due to climate change exacerbates the problem and, because 80 per cent of Tanzania’s economy is agriculture related, water availability and the management of the resource are critical. Existing policies attempt to address these pressing issues, and due to ongoing external stressors Tanzania moved towards a new phase in water management in 2002 with a new National Water Policy (Mutayoba, 2002). The 2005 National Water Sector Development Strategy (NWSDS) should ideally help facilitate the proper implementation of a revised 2002 Water Policy, but problems in implementation imply the work of a ‘cunning’ state that pursues a policy framework that is a best fit with global rather...
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