The Influence of Culture on Successful Cooperation
Edited by Jan Ulijn, Geert Duysters and Elise Meijer
Chapter 7: Cross-border Marriages: Dutch–Japanese and Dutch–American Combinations
7. Cross-border marriages: Dutch– Japanese and Dutch–American combinations Frits Grotenhuis INTRODUCTION Many varieties of cross-border marriages exist, ranging from strategic alliances to joint-ventures, acquisitions, or mergers (Marks and Mirvis, 1998). Different kinds of motives can be found in the literature, such as gaining access to foreign markets or distribution channels, acquiring technology, economies of scales, or even hubris. Depending on the motives, management can decide about the desired type of partnership (Haspeslagh and Jemison, 1991). Mergers and acquisitions are most influential in comparison to alliances or joint ventures. Unfortunately, however, although synergies are easily calculated, realizing the benefits appears not to be easy. Most studies regarding mergers and acquisitions show, on average, that between 50 per cent and 80 per cent of mergers and acquisitions do not prove to be successful (Sirower, 1997). During the pre-merger phase, strategic, financial and legal issues play a major role in realizing a merger. During the post-merger integration phase, cultural issues are often mentioned as the major reason for difficulties (Olie, 1990), sometimes even resulting in disentanglement. Although many scholars have investigated the concept of culture (Tihanyi et al., 2005), it remains complex to understand the concept fully. Haspeslagh and Jemison (1991) indicate that different scholars have emphasized the importance of culture, although most of these studies have only measured static differences. This chapter contributes to the understanding of processes of cultural integration for Dutch–American and Dutch–Japanese merger situations. 184 Cross-border marriages Corporate Culture 185 NC NC CC NC CC CC...
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