Edited by Graeme A. Hodge, Carsten Greve and Anthony E. Boardman
Chapter 15: Empirical PPP Experiences in Europe: National Variations of a Global Concept
Gerhard Hammerschmid and Tamyko Ysa Global diffusion of an Anglo-Saxon concept The idea of public–private partnership (PPP) as a model for public procurement and financing public investments arrived on a wave of public management modernization issues in the early 1990s in Europe and was first implemented on a broader basis in the UK under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI). A European Investment Bank (2007) report clearly shows that the UK is still a forerunner in terms of both number of PPP projects and volume. Out of a cumulative value of €194.7 billion that has been signed up until the end of 2006, the UK accounts for 57.7 per cent. However, it is also clear that the UK market is maturing (e.g. Ysa, 2007), whereas the rest of the European PPP market is growing. International organizations such as the World Bank, the OECD and the International Monetary Fund, together with multinational professional companies (e.g. PwC, 2005; Deloitte, 2006a, 2006b; DLA Piper, 2007; Ernst & Young, 2008), played an important role in the international diffusion of PPPs both as promoters and as knowledge carriers. Within Europe especially, the European Commission has given a strong impetus in a similar form when launching a Green Paper on PPPs in 2004 (European Commission, 2004). PPPs have raised high expectations among scholars, governments and practitioners in Europe alike. They are seen as ‘a new generation of management reforms’ (Pollitt, 2003, p. 53) and have found their way into many government programmes throughout Europe. The German federal...
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