Edited by Graeme A. Hodge, Carsten Greve and Anthony E. Boardman
Carsten Greve and Ulrika Mörth Introduction What have been the experiences with public–private partnerships (PPPs) in Scandinavia in recent years? Are PPPs an old or a new phenomenon? What explains the apparent lack of interest in infrastructure PPPs and the comparatively low number of PPP projects in Scandinavia? This chapter examines the Scandinavian countries’ experiences with PPPs. Scandinavia comprises Denmark, Sweden and Norway. We examine four areas in particular: (1) the broader framework of public–private cooperation; (2) government policy towards PPPs; (3) overview of the empirical PPP infrastructure projects; and (4) evaluation of the developments. One of the main themes and questions in this handbook is whether PPPs are a new or an old phenomenon. The Scandinavian cases suggests that the label of ‘PPP’ is new, but that the phenomenon of governments working with the private sector to build and develop infrastructure has deep historical roots in the Scandinavian corporatist tradition. This is especially true for the local urban communities (Pierre, 1997). It could also be argued that the corporatist tradition, with close collaboration between the public and the private spheres, does not square at all with the Anglo-Saxon version of public–private collaboration. Superficially, they are both about close collaborative arrangements between public and private actors, but the corporatist model is rather hierarchical and informal, whereas PPPs are formal contracting arrangements between two equal partners. In addition, there are ideological and democratic differences between a more pluralist model of public–private collaboration and the corporatist tradition....
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